The Modified Gambling Motivation Scale: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Links With Problem Gambling
The Gambling Motivation Scale (GMS), a scale based on self-determination theory, consists of seven motivations: to learn the game, to feel competent, to experience excitement, to socialize, to feel important, to win money, and to continue gambling aimlessly (Chantal, Vallerand, & Vallieres, 1994). The GMS has never been tested with confirmatory factor analysis to determine the appropriate structure of gambling motivation. In the present study, we developed the Modified Gambling Motivation Scale (MGMS) to improve the reading comprehension and psychometrics of the GMS. We also proposed a simpler interpretation of motivation scores than that applied to the previous scoring system. Confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modelling, and measurement invariance were performed on the GMS and the MGMS, which suggested that six motivations were distinct and important to gambling behaviour: to experience an intellectual challenge (combined motivations to learn and to feel competent), to experience excitement, to socialize, to feel important, to win money, and to continue gambling aimlessly. This six-factor structure of gambling motivation aligns more closely with self-determination theory and removes problems with estimations in the seven-factor structure. The results showed that gamblers who were motivated to experience excitement and to socialize had more problem gambling than did other gamblers.
L’Échelle de motivation envers les jeux de hasard et d’argent, fondée sur la théorie de l’autodétermination, est constituée de sept motivations : apprendre le jeu, se sentir compétent, vivre une expérience excitante, socialiser, se sentir important, gagner de l’argent et continuer à jouer pour le simple plaisir (Chantal, Vallerand, et Vallières, 1994). La structure de l’échelle n’a jamais été soumise à des tests avec analyse factorielle confirmatoire pour déterminer la structure appropriée de la motivation du jeu. Dans la présente étude, nous avons mis au point une échelle modifiée de motivation de jeu pour améliorer la compréhension de la lecture et la psychométrie de l’échelle. Nous proposons également une simplification de l’interprétation des pointages de motivation par rapport au système précédent. L’analyse factorielle confirmatoire, la modélisation de l’équation structurelle et l’invariance de mesure ont été réalisées sur les deux échelles de motivation, et les résultats démontrent que six motivations étaient distinctes et importantes pour le comportement du jeu. Il s’agissait des motivations relatives au défi intellectuel (combinées à des motivations d’apprendre et de se sentir compétent), de vivre une expérience excitante, de socialiser, de se sentir important, de gagner de l’argent et de continuer à jouer pour le simple plaisir. Cette structure de motivation envers les jeux à six facteurs correspond davantage à la théorie de l’autodétermination et supprime les problèmes d’estimation avec la structure à sept facteurs. Les résultats ont montré que les joueurs qui étaient motivés à vivre une expérience excitante et à socialiser avaient plus de problèmes de jeux compulsifs.
Journal Contributors Agreement
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
The parties intending to be legally bound (the principal author [Author] and the Journal of Gambling Issues [Publisher]), agree as follows:
1. The Author grants exclusively to the Publisher all world-wide rights in this Contribution; including the full copyright therein, the right to publish it as part of the JGI in all forms, languages and media now or hereafter known or developed and including, but not limited to, the right to license subsidiary rights such as granting rights to reprint in anthologies issued by other publishers or to photocopy for classroom use.
2. The Author guarantees that he or she is the sole owner of the Contribution and has full authority to make this agreement; and that the Contribution does not contain any copyright; does not violate any other property rights; does not contain any scandalous, libelous or unlawful matter; does not make any improper invasion of the privacy of another person; and has not been published before, and is not now being considered for publication elsewhere.
If the Contribution has been published previously, the Author guarantees that permission has been obtained, and any fee required has been paid, for publication in the JGI and shall submit proof of such permission and any required credit line to the Publisher with the signed agreement. The Author agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Publisher against any claim or proceeding undertaken on any of the aforementioned grounds.
3. The Author shall allow the Editor of the JGI and the Publisher to make the Contribution conform to the style of presentation, spelling, capitalization, punctuation and usage followed by the JGI. The Author agrees to review and correct the copyedited manuscript and proofs and to return them to the editor by the date set by the Editor. If the Editor has not received them by that time, the Author agrees that production of the JGI in which the Contribution is to be included may proceed without waiting for the Author's approval of the manuscript or the proofs.
4. If the Author wishes to publish this Contribution elsewhere, the Publisher shall grant to the Author, for no fee, a nonexclusive License to republish the Contribution in the same form in any language in a book or other media written or edited by the Author after the issue of the JGI containing the Contribution has been published, subject only to the conditions that a credit line, to be supplied by the Publisher, will be printed in the Author's book: to indicate the first publication of the Contribution in the JGI. The Author shall inform the Publisher 30 days before the Contribution is released in any other form.
5. This agreement shall be construed and interpreted through the laws of the province of Ontario, Canada. This agreement shall be binding upon and operate to the benefit of the parties thereto, their heirs, successors, assigns, and personal representatives. Where the Contribution is the product of more than one person, all of the obligations of the Author hereby created shall be deemed to be the joint and several obligations of all such persons as testified by their signatures.
6. The Author shall receive no payment from the Publisher for use of the Contribution.
7. The Author agrees to reference this article using its full and accurate name: Journal of Gambling Issues.