Perfectionism Predicts Disordered Gambling Via Financially Focused Self-Concept
Perfectionism has been implicated in several psychiatric disorders, including eating disorders, anxiety disorders, and depression. In the current research, we extended the analysis of perfectionism to understand disordered gambling. Unlike other life domains in which people with perfectionistic tendencies can objectively control outcomes (e.g., dieting to control one’s body shape or weight in eating disorders), perfectionism in the gambling context is unique because there is little to no objective control over gambling outcomes (i.e., winning money). We hypothesized that gamblers with perfectionistic tendencies may set themselves a high standard within the financial success domain, which would manifest in more severe disordered gambling symptoms. We also hypothesized that having a self-concept that is focused on financial success would mediate the relation between perfectionistic tendencies and disordered gambling severity. To test this mediation model, we asked a community sample of gamblers (n = 258) to complete measures that assessed perfectionistic tendencies, financially focused self-concept, and disordered gambling severity. In line with expectations, there was a moderate positive relation between perfectionistic tendencies and disordered gambling severity, which was further mediated by financially focused self-concept. These findings suggest that perfectionistic tendencies among gamblers are associated with disordered gambling because such tendencies result in a self-concept that is focused on financial success. The findings also suggest that targeting gamblers’ perfectionistic tendencies in prevention and treatment interventions may be instrumental in alleviating their financial focus, which would help curtail the development and maintenance of disordered gambling.
On a établi que le perfectionnisme entrait en ligne de compte dans plusieurs troubles psychiatriques, entre autres les troubles de l’alimentation, les troubles anxieux et la dépression. Dans la présente recherche, nous avons étendu l’analyse du perfectionnisme pour comprendre le jeu compulsif. Contrairement aux autres domaines de la vie où les personnes ayant des tendances perfectionnistes peuvent contrôler objectivement les résultats (p. ex., suivre un régime pour contrôler sa silhouette ou son poids), le perfectionnisme dans le contexte du jeu est unique parce qu’il y a très peu ou pas de contrôle sur les résultats (c’est-à-dire gagner de l’argent). Nous avons avancé l’hypothèse que les joueurs ayant des tendances perfectionnistes pouvaient fixer un niveau élevé de réussite financière, ce qui se traduirait par des symptômes de jeu compulsif plus sévères. Nous avons également émis l’hypothèse que le fait d’avoir une image de soi centrée sur la réussite financière permettait d’établir un lien entre les tendances perfectionnistes et la gravité du jeu compulsif. Pour tester ce modèle de médiation, un échantillon communautaire de joueurs (n = 258) a complété des mesures évaluant les tendances perfectionnistes, une image de soi axée sur les finances et la gravité du jeu compulsif. Conformément aux attentes, il existait une relation positive modérée entre les tendances perfectionnistes et la gravité du jeu compulsif qui était davantage liée avec une image de soi axée sur les finances. Ces résultats laissent entendre que les tendances perfectionnistes chez les joueurs sont associées au jeu compulsif parce que de telles tendances aboutissent à une image de soi axée sur la réussite financière. Les résultats suggèrent également que le ciblage des tendances perfectionnistes des joueurs dans les interventions de prévention et de traitement peut contribuer à alléger leur orientation financière, ce qui contribuerait à freiner le développement et le maintien du jeu compulsif.
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