Factor structure and validation of the Japanese version of the Gambling Symptom Assessment Scale (GSAS-J)
Keywords:gambling, scale, confirmatory factor analysis, validity, internal consistency
The Gambling Symptom Assessment Scale (GSAS) is a 12-item self-rated measure designed to assess gambling symptoms. This study was designed to translate the GSAS into Japanese and to examine the factor structure and validity of the Japanese version of the GSAS (GSAS-J) for a Japanese sample population. We examined the measurement invariance in the GSAS-J between a probable disordered and a non-disordered gambling sample. Seven hundred and seven participants (380 men, 327 women; mean age = 48.41, SD = 10.79) living in Japan were recruited online and included in the analyses. Confirmatory factor analysis results indicated that the GSAS-J factor structure (one-factor structure model) was appropriate for the data (χ2(48) = 195.49, p < .05; CFI = .927; RMSEA = .066; SRMR = .036). Results of multi-group confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the GSAS-J demonstrated strong factorial invariance between probable disordered gamblers and non-disordered gamblers. The Cronbach a coefficient was .96 for the total scale. Good concurrent validity was found for the GSAS-J in relation with other variables: the Kruskal-Wallis H test showed severe and extreme gamblers spent more days and much more money than those of moderate or mild gamblers, and the GSAS-J was significantly correlated with South Oaks Gambling Screen (r = .57), Gambling Related Cognitions Scale (r = .71), and Gambling Urge Scale (r = .72). Furthermore, t-test results indicated significant gender differences in GSAS-J scores. These results indicate GSAS-J is a valid measure for assessing gambling symptoms in Japanese sample populations.
La Gambling Symptom Assessment Scale (GSAS) (échelle d’évaluation des symptômes du jeu pathologique) est une mesure d’auto-évaluation en 12 points, conçue pour évaluer les symptômes du jeu. Cette étude visait à traduire le GSAS en japonais et à examiner la structure factorielle et la validité de la version japonaise du GSAS (GSAS-J) pour un échantillon de population japonaise. Nous avons examiné l’invariance des mesures du GSAS-J entre un échantillon de jeu problématique probable et un échantillon de jeu non problématique. Sept-cent-sept participants (380 hommes, 327 femmes; âge moyen = 48,41, SD = 10,79) vivant au Japon ont été recrutés en ligne et inclus dans les analyses. Les résultats de l’analyse factorielle confirmatoire ont indiqué que la structure factorielle du GSAS-J (modèle de structure à un facteur) était appropriée pour les données (χ2(48) = 195,49, p < 0,05; CFI = 0,927; RMSEA = 0,066; SRMR = 0,036). Les résultats de l’analyse factorielle confirmatoire multi-groupes ont indiqué que le GSAS-J démontrait une forte invariance factorielle entre les joueurs probablement pathologiques et les joueurs non pathologiques. Le coefficient de Cronbach a était de 0,96 pour l’échelle totale. Une bonne validité convergente a été trouvée pour le GSAS-J en fonction de relation avec d’autres variables: Test Kruskal-Wallis H – le groupe de joueurs montant de graves et à très graves symptômes du jeu a passé plus de jours et dépensé beaucoup plus d’argent que les joueurs des groupes ayant des symptômes modérés ou légers; analyses de corrélation – South Oaks Gambling Screen (r = 0,57), échelle des cognitions liées au jeu (Gambling Related Cognitions Scale) (r = 0,71) et échelle de jeu compulsif (r = 0,72). En outre, les résultats du test de Student indiquaient des différences significatives entre les sexes dans les scores GSAS-J. Ces résultats indiquent que le GSAS-J est une mesure valable pour évaluer les symptômes du jeu dans les échantillons de la population japonaise.
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