Hey Big Spender: An Ecological Momentary Assessment of Sports and Race Betting Expenditure by Gambler Characteristics
Keywords:betting, wagering, expenditure, gambling, problem gambling, gambling harm
A major obstacle to understanding how expenditure varies amongst people who gamble is the difficulty of obtaining accurate expenditure data from individual gamblers. To overcome the shortcomings of retrospective self-reports, this study used a prospective ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design to capture these data every 24/48 hours. It aimed to examine 1) demographic, psychological, behavioural and contextual characteristics of high-spending sports and race bettors, and 2) the relationship between betting outlay and problem gambling severity. A baseline survey was completed by 320 regular sports bettors and 402 regular race bettors, followed by 15 EMA surveys over three non-consecutive weeks. Higher spending bettors were more likely to: be male, place more of their bets online, have higher disposable incomes, have commenced betting at a younger age, have more accounts with betting operators, and bet when affected by alcohol. The analyses confirmed the strong link between problem gambling severity and financial outlay on betting. Regular sports bettors experiencing gambling problems spent four times more, and those at moderate-risk spent three times more, than their non-problem gambling counterparts. Regular race bettors experiencing gambling problems spent three times more, and those at moderate-risk spent twice as much, as the non-problem gambling race bettors. These results suggest that regulatory and other initiatives that help bettors to limit or reduce their financial outlay on betting should be central to harm minimisation efforts, in order to reduce the growing number of bettors experiencing gambling problems and harm.
Un des principaux obstacles à la compréhension de la variation des dépenses entre les joueurs est la difficulté d’obtenir des données précises sur les dépenses de la part de joueurs individuels. Pour pallier les faiblesses d’auto-évaluations rétrospectives, cette étude visait à utiliser un modèle d’évaluation écologique momentanée (EMA) prospective pour saisir ces données toutes les 24 à 48 heures, afin d’examiner 1) les caractéristiques démographiques, psychologiques, comportementales et contextuelles de gros parieurs de course et de paris sportifs et 2) la relation entre les dépenses de paris et la gravité du jeu problématique. Une enquête initiale a été réalisée auprès de 320 parieurs sportifs et de 402 parieurs de course réguliers, suivie de 15 sondages EMA sur trois semaines non consécutives. Les plus gros parieurs étaient plus susceptibles de: placer davantage de paris en ligne, d’avoir un revenu disponible plus élevé, d’avoir commencé à parier à un plus jeune âge, d’avoir davantage de comptes auprès d’opérateurs de paris et de parier sous l’influence de l’alcool. Les analyses ont confirmé le lien étroit qui existe entre la gravité du jeu problématique et les dépenses financières consacrées aux paris. Les parieurs sportifs réguliers aux prises avec des problèmes de jeu dépensaient quatre fois plus et ceux à risque modéré, trois fois plus, que leurs homologues sans problème de jeu. Les parieurs de course réguliers aux prises avec des problèmes de jeu dépensaient trois fois plus et ceux à risque modéré, deux fois plus, que leurs homologues sans problème de jeu. Ces résultats laissent entrevoir que les initiatives réglementaires et autres initiatives qui aident les parieurs à limiter ou à réduire leurs dépenses en paris devraient être au cœur des efforts de minimisation des préjudices, afin de réduire le nombre croissant de parieurs ayant des problèmes de jeu et de préjudices.
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