Journal of Gambling Issues 2021-09-23T12:50:11-07:00 Vivien Rekkas, Ph.D. Open Journal Systems <p>The Journal of Gambling Issues (<em>JGI</em>) is the world's first and longest-running online, academic journal dedicated to understanding problem gambling. Due to the increasing convergence of gambling and gaming, the <em>JGI</em> expanded its scope in 2020 to include problem video gaming and technology use. </p> <p><em>JGI</em> is an open-access, indexed journal with a double blind peer review process that provides a scientific forum for developments in gambling-related research, policy issues, and treatments. <em>JGI</em> is now part of the <em>Web of Science: Emerging Sources Citation Index.</em> We are also indexed in<em> Scopus, Crossref, Elselvier Series, Ebsco, Scimago and PsycInfo, </em>among others.<em> </em></p> <p><strong>Publishing Schedule and Fees:</strong> Issues are published triannually, although manuscripts are made publicly available as soon as they have been accepted/typeset on the <em>JGI Online First</em> platform. <em>JGI</em> does not charge any review or publication fees and is fully open access.</p> <p>The<em> JGI</em> is published by the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health and funded by Ontario’s Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. </p> <p><strong>French Language Announcement: </strong>As of June 1, 2021 the JGI will no longer be accepting French language submissions.</p> <p><strong>Journal ISSN (electronic): </strong>1910-7595</p> Elevated Prevalence of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Severe Gambling Disorder: A Pilot Study in U.S. Veterans 2021-09-14T09:20:00-07:00 George E Jaskiw Toby Chen Heather Chapman P Eric Konicki Peijun Chen <p>Gambling disorder (GD) is associated with a higher prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Whether this applies to groups such as U.S. veterans, who already have elevated ACEs, is not known. In this pilot study, we extracted ACEs from the charts of a random sample (<em>n</em> = 19) male veterans in residential GD treatment and compared them to those from a general veteran sample (<em>n</em> =154, 30 females, 124 males). The GD group had an elevated prevalence (79% vs. 37%) of three or more ACEs and a lower prevalence (5% vs. 49%) of one or fewer ACEs. Within groups with elevated ACEs, higher ACE load may still confer a higher risk of adult GD.</p> 2021-09-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Gambling behaviours and treatment uptake among vulnerable populations during COVID-19 crisis 2021-09-23T12:32:11-07:00 Robert J Miela Wiesław J Cubała Katarzyna Jakuszkowiak-Wojten Dariusz W Mazurkiewicz <p>This study aimed to explore changes in gambling behaviours and gambling disorder (GD) treatment uptake during the COVID-19 pandemic among those with a heightened vulnerability to gambling-related harm. This was a single-center, cross-sectional, retrospective case series study assessing gambling behaviours and GD counselling participation among a vulnerable population sector following the COVID-19 shutdown. The clinical records of clients at a community substance use disorder (SUD) treatment center were explored (<em>N </em>= 67). Eight clients (<em>n </em>= 8) had satisfied the objective criteria, and were qualified for data exploration and analysis of gambling activities and GD treatment participation following the COVID-19 shutdown. All clients in the study belonged to subgroups at an elevated risk for gambling-related harm, with a mean duration of gambling problems of 9.5 years. Following the COVID-19 shutdown, an increase in gambling activities was noted in five cases. Migration to online gambling was noted in three cases. In two cases, no change in gambling activities was noted, and a reduction of gambling activities was noted in one case. In seven cases, no screening for gambling problems prior to current SUD program was noted. None had a history of, nor were currently engaged in counselling for gambling problems. The COVID-19 crisis and associated increase in gambling participation, coupled with a diminutive gambling counselling uptake during the pandemic, present an opportunity to rethink current behavioural addictions service delivery model for those with an increased vulnerability to gambling-related harm. Further investigation of the changes in gambling participation, and a closer look at optimizing GD service delivery among vulnerable population sectors during the COVID-19 crisis is warranted.</p> 2021-09-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Alcohol Misuse in a Treatment-Seeking Sample of Pathological Gamblers 2021-08-02T14:29:00-07:00 Emmert Roberts Venetia Leonidaki Zoe Delaney Henrietta Bowden- Jones <p>We aimed to estimate the prevalence of alcohol misuse and examine its relationship with gambling severity and psychological distress in a UK treatment-seeking sample of pathological gamblers. Approximately one in four patients (27.1%) scored X 8 on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) screening tool indicating alcohol misuse, and one in four (28.1%) reported abstinence. There was no evidence of an association between alcohol misuse and gambling severity or psychological distress level. Compared to the UK general population a significantly higher proportion demonstrated probable alcohol dependence (1.2% vs. 6.3%, <em>p</em> &lt; 0.001).</p> 2021-09-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Temporal Measurement Invariance of the Financially Focused Self-Concept Construct 2021-09-14T09:53:58-07:00 Nassim Tabri Kahlil S Philander Richard T Wood Michael J A Wohl <p>Persons maintaining a financially focused self-concept view financial success as a core aspect of their respective self-concepts. We examined whether measurement properties of the financially focused self-concept scale (FFS) are invariant over time. A sample of predominantly older community members who gamble (N = 147) completed the 4-item FFS and Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) twice, approximately four weeks apart. FFS had strong temporal measurement invariance and moderate-to-high temporal stability. FFS and PGSI were also positively associated within and across waves. These findings indicate that people who score higher in financial focus report more gambling problems concurrently and over time.</p> 2021-09-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 The Ordering of Gambling Severity and Harm Scales: A Cautionary Tale 2021-07-21T07:09:58-07:00 Kate Sollis Patrick Leslie Nicholas Biddle Marisa Paterson <p>Question-order effects are known to occur in surveys, particularly those that measure subjective experiences. The presence of context effects will impact the comparability of results if questions have not been presented in a consistent manner. In this study, we examined the influence of question order on how people responded to two gambling scales in the Australian Capital Territory Gambling Prevalence Survey: The Problem Gambling Severity Index and the Short Gambling Harm Screen. The application of these scales in gambling surveys is continuing to grow, the results being compared across time and between jurisdictions, countries, and populations. Here we outline a survey experiment that randomized the question ordering of these two scales. The results show that question-order effects are present for these scales, demonstrating that results from them may not be comparable across jurisdictions if the scales have not been presented consistently across surveys. These findings highlight the importance of testing for the presence of question-order effects, particularly for those scales that measure subjective experiences, and correcting for such effects where they exist by randomizing scale order.</p> 2021-09-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 An Exploratory Study in Gambling Recovery Communities: A Comparison Between ‘‘Pure’’ and Substance-Abusing Gamblers 2021-07-21T07:35:59-07:00 Alessandro Quaglieri Emanuela Mari Pierluigi Cordellieri Elena Paoli Francesca Dimarco Mario Postiglione Giampaolo Nicolasi Tania Fontanella Umberto Guidoni Sandro Vedovi Anna Maria Giannini <p>Most of the available literature has shown that gambling disorder (GD) is often associated with several psychiatric conditions. Comorbidities with mood disorders, impulsiveness, personality traits, and impairments in cognitive function have also been frequently investigated. However, it is currently uncommon to study this disorder in individuals without comorbid substance abuse; therefore, the primary aim of our study was to compare the psychological profile of individuals with GD with and without substance use disorder. A total of 60 participants (100% male), including 20 individuals with GD, 20 substance-dependent gamblers (SDGs), and 20 healthy controls (HCs), were assessed with several clinical measures to investigate impulsivity, hostility, mood, and personality traits, as well as with cognitive tasks (i.e., decision-making tasks). Our results showed differences in both experimental groups compared with the HC group in mood disorders, impulsivity, and hostility traits. The ‘‘pure’’ GD group differed from the SDG group only in characteristics related to mood disorders (e.g., State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Y2, Beck Depression Inventory-II, and assault dimension), whereas greater impairment in decision making processes related to risky choices was shown in the SDG group. This study suggests the importance of studying pure GD to clarify the underlying mechanisms without the neurotoxic effects of the substances. This could provide an important contribution to the treatment and understanding of this complex disorder.</p> 2021-09-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Drivers of Recreational Online Gambling Intentions: A UTAUT 2 Perspective, Enhancements, Results, and Implications 2021-08-02T14:42:15-07:00 Jirka Konietzny Albert Caruana <p>Recreational gambling has become an accepted pursuit, and the advent of the Internet has rendered online gambling ubiquitous. However, the resultant rapid growth in online recreational gambling is not matched by an understanding of the drivers of customers’ intentions to gamble online. While this is potentially a fascinating aspect of consumer behavior, marketing scholars have shied away from giving online gambling much attention. This research seeks a better understanding of the drivers of recreational online gambling intentions among customers by applying the latest version of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Technology—UTAUT 2, to customers in an online gambling context. It also proposes additional hypotheses that account for the role of anticipated enjoyment and perceived fairness. Data are collected from 593 casino customers of an online gambling firm and analyzed using PLS-SEM via Smart PLS. Results show that perceived fairness and anticipated enjoyment are significant drivers of online gambling intention, with perceived fairness being fully mediated by effort expectancy, anticipated enjoyment, and social influence. Shorn of drivers and moderators that are not significant, an online gambling intention model is proposed. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed, limitations are noted, and areas for further research are suggested.</p> 2021-09-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Self-Management Strategies for Problem Gambling in the Context of Poverty and Homelessness 2021-07-29T12:14:18-07:00 Flora I Matheson Sarah Hamilton-Wright Arthur McLuhan Jing Shi Jessica L Wiese David T Kryszajtys Nigel E Turner Sara Guilcher <p>Problem gambling and gambling disorder are serious public health issues that disproportionately affect persons experiencing poverty, homelessness, and multimorbidity. Several barriers to service access contribute to low rates of formal treatment-seeking for problem gambling compared with treatments for other addictions. Given these challenges to treatment and care, self-management may be a viable alternative or complement to formal problem gambling interventions. In this study, we described problem gambling self management strategies among persons experiencing poverty and homelessness. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 19 adults experiencing problem gambling and poverty/homelessness, and employed qualitative content analysis to code and analyze the data thematically. We identified five types of self-management strategies: (1) seeking information on problem gambling, (2) talking about gambling problems, (3) limiting money spent on gambling, (4) avoiding gambling providers, and (5) engaging in alternative activities. Although these strategies are consistent with previous research, the social, financial,housing, and health challenges of persons experiencing poverty and homelessness shaped their self-management experiences and approaches in distinct ways. Approaches to problem gambling treatment should attend to the broader context in which persons experience and attempt to self-manage problem gambling.</p> 2021-09-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Gambling Prevention Mobile Applications: Understanding the Inclusion and Use of Behaviour Change Techniques 2021-09-14T12:23:25-07:00 Tom St Quinton Ben Morris <p>Online gambling is emerging as a significant health behaviour of concern at a population level. Mobile applications (apps) are a popular tool to target change in health behaviour. Behaviour change techniques (BCTs) can be included within such apps to change relevant psychological mechanisms along established pathways, yet the content of apps targeting gambling problems specifically is not currently known. The purpose of the review was to identify the BCTs included in gambling prevention apps. Apps were downloaded from the Apple App Store and Google Play Store in October 2020. Apps were included if they related to gambling problems, were freely downloadable, and available in English. Once downloaded, two researchers independently coded the apps in November 2020 using the behaviour change technique taxonomy version 1 (Michie et al., 2013). The screening led to forty apps meeting the inclusion criteria (12 Apple App Store, 28 Google Play). The analyses identified 32 BCTs (20 Apple apps, 28 Google Play apps), with apps including between 0 and 9 BCTs (mean = 2.82, median = 2). The BCTs included most frequently were “3.1. Social support (unspecified),” “2.3. Self-monitoring of behaviour,” and “7.4. Remove access to the reward.” The review provides important information on the BCTs used in apps developed to reduce gambling-related problems. A limited number of BCTs were adopted within apps. Developers of apps seeking to develop effective gambling reduction products should draw upon a greater variety of BCTs.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-09-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Revenue Associated With Gambling-Related Harm as a Putative Indicator for Social Responsibility: Results From the Swiss Health Survey 2021-09-23T08:43:05-07:00 Emilien Jeannot Jean Michel Costes Cheryl Dickson Olivier Simon <p>Gambling behaviours represent a significant social and economic cost and an important public health problem. A putative index for monitoring gambling-related harm is a &nbsp;concentration of spending indicator that reports the proportion of gambling revenue derived from problem gambling. Using this indicator, we aimed to provide a first estimate of the proportion of gambling revenue associated with gambling-related harm in Switzerland according to the Swiss Health Survey. Data were obtained from the Swiss Health Survey 2017. The National Opinion Research Centre Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Loss of Control, Lying and Preoccupation (NODS-CLiP) screening tool was used as part of the questionnaire, and the study findings were evaluated to determine the prevalence of gambling-related harm. Self-reported spending on terrestrial and online gambling (including gaming tables, electronic gaming machines, lotteries, sports betting) during the past 12 months was then used to calculate the portion of gambling revenue derived from players experiencing harm. A total of 12,191 respondents were included. Gambling-related harm was reported by 3.10% of our sample, according to NODS-CLiP criteria. The findings showed that although 52% of people experiencing harm spend less than 100 francs per month on gambling, 31.3% of total spending is attributable to gambling-related harm. In addition to pre-existing national prevalence studies, data on spending should be made readily available by gambling operators and regulators, in keeping with their regulatory obligations. The revenue structure, according to gambling type, should also be provided, including data from third-party gambling operators. In an interdisciplinary effort to improve public health and consumer protection, organized national structural prevention measures should be developed and evaluated.</p> 2021-09-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 An Exploratory Study of the Relationship Between Financial Well-Being and Changes in Reported Gambling Behaviour During the COVID-19 Shutdown in Australia 2021-09-23T12:50:11-07:00 Thomas B Swanton Martin T Burgess Alex Blaszczynski Sally M Gainsbury <p>A change in someone’s financial situation, such as a windfall gain or increased financial stress, can affect the way that they gamble. The aim of this paper was to explore the relationship between financial well-being and changes in gambling behaviour during the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) shutdown. Australian past-year gamblers (<em>N</em> = 764; 85% male) completed an online cross-sectional survey in May 2020. Participants retrospectively reported monthly gambling participation before and after the COVID-19 shutdown, as well as their financial well-being, experience of COVID-related financial hardship, problem gambling severity, and psychological distress. Financial well-being showed strong negative associations with problem gambling and psychological distress. Neither financial well-being nor the interaction between financial well-being and problem gambling severity showed consistent evidence for predicting changes in gambling participation during the shutdown in this sample. This study provides preliminary evidence that self-reported financial well-being has a strong negative association with gambling problems but is not related to gambling participation. Future studies should link objective measures of financial well-being from bank transaction data with survey measures of problem gambling severity and experience of gambling-related harm.</p> 2021-09-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Safer by design: Building a collaborative, integrated and evidence-based framework to inform the regulation and mitigation of gambling product risk 2021-09-17T11:04:46-07:00 Paul Delfabbro Jonathan Parke Simo Dragecvic Chris Percy Richard Bayliss <p>Evidence suggests that harms may result from gambling participation as a result of a complex interaction between individual differences among consumers, environmental factors, and the characteristics of the gambling product. The latter of these factors, broadly referred to in this paper as <em>product risk,</em> has received increased policy attention in recent years. Product-focussed approaches to harm reduction, however, are under-developed relative to other forms of player protection and likely reflects the limitations of existing evidence and relative complexity of the topic. In this position paper, we define and explain the concept of product risk and consider what is currently known regarding the link between gambling products and harm. The paper describes the present barriers to develop effective product risk regulation and harm mitigation strategies. These include the competing interests of stakeholders, limited collaboration and information sharing, clear roles, responsibilities and leadership and a lack of integrated evidence-informed approaches. In response to these challenges, we propose adopting a framework comprised of a series of principles to progress this contested area of policy. The framework encourages better collaboration and communication between stakeholders; the accelerated production of valid and reliable evidence; a strategic alignment of stakeholder activity; and, more effective and efficient approaches to assessing and mitigating product risk.</p> 2021-09-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Corporate Digital Responsibility Challenges for Sports Betting Companies 2021-07-29T11:05:23-07:00 Peter Jones Daphne Comfort <p>The emergence and continuing development of digital technologies is disrupting and reshaping traditional business practices throughout the service industries, and the gambling industry is no exception. On the one hand, digital technologies have opened the door to a landscape of new sports betting opportunities. On the other, the introduction of digital technologies brings responsibility challenges for sports betting companies. This policy paper outlines the features of corporate digital responsibility, provides some simple illustrations of digital responsibility issues in sports betting, and offers reflections on how these responsibilities are being discharged.</p> 2021-09-23T00:00:00-07:00 Copyright (c) 2021