Journal of Gambling Issues <p>The Journal of Gambling Issues (<em>JGI</em>) is the world's first and longest-running online, academic journal dedicated to understanding problem gambling. Due to the increasing convergence of gambling and gaming, the <em>JGI</em> expanded its scope in 2020 to include problem video gaming and technology use. </p> <p><em>JGI</em> is an open-access, indexed journal with a double blind peer review process that provides a scientific forum for developments in gambling-related research, policy issues, and treatments. <em>JGI</em> is now part of the <em>Web of Science: Emerging Sources Citation Index.</em> We are also indexed in<em> Scopus, Crossref, Elselvier Series, Ebsco, Scimago and PsycInfo, </em>among others.<em> </em></p> <p><strong>Publishing Schedule and Fees:</strong> Issues are published triannually, although manuscripts are made publicly available as soon as they have been accepted/typeset on the <em>JGI Online First</em> platform. <em>JGI</em> does not charge any review or publication fees and is fully open access.</p> <p>The<em> JGI</em> is published by CDS Press (<a href=""></a>). </p> <p><strong>French Language Announcement: </strong>As of June 1, 2021 the JGI will no longer be accepting French language submissions.</p> <p><strong>Journal ISSN (electronic): </strong>1910-7595</p> en-US <p><strong>Journal Contributors Agreement</strong></p> <p>The parties intending to be legally bound (the principal author [Author] and the Journal of Gambling Issues [Publisher]), agree as follows:</p> <p>1. The Author grants exclusively to the Publisher all world-wide rights in this Contribution; including the full copyright therein, the right to publish it as part of the JGI in all forms, languages and media now or hereafter known or developed and including, but not limited to, the right to license subsidiary rights such as granting rights to reprint in anthologies issued by other publishers or to photocopy for classroom use.</p> <p>2. The Author guarantees that he or she is the sole owner of the Contribution and has full authority to make this agreement; and that the Contribution does not contain any copyright; does not violate any other property rights; does not contain any scandalous, libelous or unlawful matter; does not make any improper invasion of the privacy of another person; and has not been published before, and is not now being considered for publication elsewhere.</p> <p>If the Contribution has been published previously, the Author guarantees that permission has been obtained, and any fee required has been paid, for publication in the JGI and shall submit proof of such permission and any required credit line to the Publisher with the signed agreement. The Author agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Publisher against any claim or proceeding undertaken on any of the aforementioned grounds.</p> <p>3. The Author shall allow the Editor of the JGI and the Publisher to make the Contribution conform to the style of presentation, spelling, capitalization, punctuation and usage followed by the JGI. The Author agrees to review and correct the copyedited manuscript and proofs and to return them to the editor by the date set by the Editor. If the Editor has not received them by that time, the Author agrees that production of the JGI in which the Contribution is to be included may proceed without waiting for the Author's approval of the manuscript or the proofs.</p> <p>4. If the Author wishes to publish this Contribution elsewhere, the Publisher shall grant to the Author, for no fee, a nonexclusive License to republish the Contribution in the same form in any language in a book or other media written or edited by the Author after the issue of the JGI containing the Contribution has been published, subject only to the conditions that a credit line, to be supplied by the Publisher, will be printed in the Author's book: to indicate the first publication of the Contribution in the JGI. The Author shall inform the Publisher 30 days before the Contribution is released in any other form.</p> <p>5. This agreement shall be construed and interpreted through the laws of the province of Ontario, Canada. This agreement shall be binding upon and operate to the benefit of the parties thereto, their heirs, successors, assigns, and personal representatives. Where the Contribution is the product of more than one person, all of the obligations of the Author hereby created shall be deemed to be the joint and several obligations of all such persons as testified by their signatures.</p> <p>6. The Author shall receive no payment from the Publisher for use of the Contribution.</p> <p>7. The Author agrees to reference this article using its full and accurate name: Journal of Gambling Issues.</p> <p> </p> (Journal Manager) (Journal Manager) Mon, 31 Jan 2022 00:00:00 -0800 OJS 60 Gambling During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Experiences of Risks and Change Among Finnish Gamblers <p>This brief report presents results on how gamblers have experienced risks and change during the exceptional situation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The study is based on online questionnaires collected by the University of Helsinki and the Finnish Association for Substance Use Prevention (<em>N</em> = 586). Results show that the reduced availability of gambling in the Finnish context has limited its total consumption. The risk of gambling-related harms has therefore become less pressing during the pandemic. Although gambling is a public health risk in addition to being a harmful activity for the individual, the policy measures during the pandemic have revealed that, at a societal level, the risk of infection with COVID-19 was perceived as being a more serious problem than was the risk of gambling harms.</p> Virve Marionneau, Johanna Järvinen-Tassopoulos, Tuulia Lerkkanen Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 31 Jan 2022 00:00:00 -0800 The geography of gambling: A socio-spatial analysis of gambling machine location and area-level socio-economic status <p>This study mapped the geographical location and density of electronic gambling machines (EGMs) in Denmark and investigated whether gambling machines cluster in areas with specific socio-economic status (SES) characteristics. Using micro-area modeling and inverse probability weighted regression adjustments, the study was based on register data on SES, EGM location data and geographical grid data. Findings showed that EGMs were distributed throughout the country with some notable clusters in the larger cities. While identifying city-based hotspots, findings also indicated that pure population density offered merely partial explanations in term of EGM location. In terms of links between area-level SES and EGM density, the study found a significant and positive correlation between low level of SES and EGM density. This study could inform fine grained geographical risk localization and harm minimizing measures that transcends well-known administrative area classifications.</p> Søren Kristiansen, Rolf Lyneborg Lund Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 31 Jan 2022 00:00:00 -0800 Does the System Matter? Surplus Directed to Society in Monopolistic and License-Based Gambling Provision. <p>The comparative advantages of license-based and monopolistic gambling regimes have been discussed in previous literature from the perspective of their capacity to prevent harms, but less is known about the ability of different regimes to produce public revenue. Gambling is nevertheless an important source of revenue for public service provision. The current paper compares figures from the financial statements of two monopolistic gambling providers in Finland (Veikkaus) and Norway (Norsk Tipping), to four license-based companies operating in the Italian market (Snaitech, Sisal, Gamenet and HBG gaming) to analyze how much surplus they contribute to their host societies and what kind of factors these amounts depend on. The results show that overall, the Nordic monopolistic operations appear more effective in terms of producing gambling surplus to society than the Italian license-based companies. This difference is analyzed in terms of game product portfolios, operating costs, and levels of normal profit. The role of operating costs appears to be the most important factor explaining the lower surplus generated by Italian companies. However, the bulk of these operating costs are directed to the redistribution network which creates employment. If these employment effects are considered, both licensing and monopolistic regimes appear similarly effective. We conclude by problematizing the use of financial effectiveness as a measure for good gambling policy. High surplus collected for societies is also related to high overall gambling volumes that go against public health objectives of reducing harms.</p> Virve Marionneau, Gabriele Mandolesi, Sara Rolando, Janne Nikkinen Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 31 Jan 2022 00:00:00 -0800 Problem gambling, risk behaviours, and mental health in adolescence: A person oriented study <p>Adolescent gambling is becoming a public health problem. While comorbidities with other externalizing behaviours have been ascertained, few studies focus on adolescents with a multi-problem behaviour pattern, i.e., alcohol and tobacco use, in addition to antisocial behaviour, which includes problem gambling. The purpose of this study was to identify adolescents with multi-problem behaviours, i.e., alcohol abuse, daily smoking, antisocial behaviour, and problem gambling and to investigate the differences in relation to gender. Unlike most studies on this topic, we adopted a person-oriented approach to identify groups of adolescent boys and girls who reported multi-problem risk behaviours, i.e., alcohol abuse, daily smoking, antisocial behaviour, and problem gambling. Moreover, we explored to what extent these adolescents exhibited mental health problems, i.e., depressive, psychosomatic, and ADHD symptoms, as well as sleep problems. The sample consisted of 1,526 adolescents from two age cohorts, 15- to 16-year-olds (<em>n </em>= 711, 47%) and 17- to 18-year-olds (<em>n </em>= 815, 53%). Latent Variable Mixture Modeling (LVMM) revealed one group with low rates of all risk behaviours and three groups with multi-problem behaviours. Among the latter three groups, two reported problem gambling and had higher levels of mental health problems. These results suggest that gambling can be added to the constellation of risk behaviours in adolescence and might be more associated with mental health problems than other externalizing behaviours.</p> Fabrizia Giannotta, Cecilia Åslund, Charlotta Hellström, Peter Larm Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 31 Jan 2022 00:00:00 -0800 Early Detection of Gambling Among At-Risk Adolescents. Validation of EDGAR-A Scale <p>Despite the fact that minors have prohibited access to commercial gambling, and legislation trying to constrain gambling, an important proportion declares that they have bet either online, or by illegally entering gambling venues. This situation highlights the need to implement selective prevention programs that requires assessment tools to identify vulnerable groups. This paper aims to design and validate a scale of evaluation for the psycho-social characteristics that predict onset and maintenance of gambling behavior among adolescents. 2,716 students of Secondary Education, 15.12 years (± 1.03) answered a frequency, intensity and problematic gambling questionnaire and a scale to evaluate risk profiles. The resulting scale is compounded by 26 items classified in 4 sub-scales: Accessibility, Risk Perception, Normative Perception and Parental Attitudes. Internal consistency coefficients were: 0.668, 0.728, 0.746 and 0.818 respectively, and 0.811 for the total scale. Results offer a robust support on the structural validity and internal consistency of the Early Detection of Gambling among At-Risk Adolescents (EDGAR-A) Scale, a useful tool for the design and assessment of effective preventive interventions.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Víctor Cabrera-Perona, Daniel Lloret-Irles, Rosa Núñez Núñez Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 31 Jan 2022 00:00:00 -0800 Erroneous Beliefs Verbalized While Playing Online Poker <p>The objective of this study was to compare erroneous beliefs of online Texas Hold’em poker players with different level of severity of problems, in situations that could cause negative emotions. Verbalizations of three groups of gamblers (low-risk, <em>n</em>=10; at-risk, <em>n</em>=10 and problem, <em>n</em>=10) while playing an online poker tournament in a laboratory setting. Participants were not aware that they played against research assistants and that all cards received were predetermined and the same for all participants. Beliefs related to the illusion of control were found in the three groups of gamblers. At-risk and problem gamblers’ perceptions denote a greater influence given to their ability on the game results, with even a denial of the part played by chance. Poker-specific beliefs, different from those usually held by game-of-chance gamblers, were also found. These results are discussed to provide ideas in how to adapt erroneous perceptions questionnaires for online poker players.</p> Priscilla Brochu, Isabelle Giroux, Julie Dufour, Daniel Fortin-Guichard, Étienne Gagnon, David Paquet, Isabelle Smith, Serge Sévigny Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 31 Jan 2022 00:00:00 -0800 “That’s No Country for ‘Young’ Men”: A Critical Perspective on Responsible Online Gambling Policies for Gambling Disorder Prevention in Spanish Minors <p>Recently, some governments and other stakeholders in countries where online gambling has been legalized have implemented responsible gambling policies. From the theoretical and empirical evidence in this study, we show that these responsible gambling policies are insufficient to prevent the emergence of pathological gambling disorder in society, especially among adolescents. Since online gambling was legalized in Spain in June 2012, online gambling companies have been required by law to implement responsible gambling policies. The implemented policies largely consist of informing customers of the dangers of gambling and how to minimize harm by engaging in behaviour that prevents addiction. However, online gambling addiction has increased exponentially; at present, it is the second most common form of pathological gambling in Spain and the most common form among young children and adolescents (Chóliz, 2016). In our study involving 6,053 underage adolescents, the results showed that more than half of them had gambled and that the prevalence rate of pathological gambling was triple that of the general population. Our main conclusions are that online gambling especially affects male minors, some of whom have developed gambling disorders since the legalization (and broad promotion) of online gambling in Spain. Responsible gambling policies implemented by the conservative government of Spain (2011–2018) and by gambling companies were insufficient to prevent such disorders from becoming an epidemic among Spanish adolescents.</p> Mariano Chóliz, Marta Marcos Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 27 Jan 2022 00:00:00 -0800 Understanding sports betting among young male student-teachers in Ghana <p>Drawing on sports betting, leisure studies and rationality concept provides information to understand how those training to be teachers are gradually gravitating towards gambling to the detriment of their studies at the university. A thorough analysis of 42 young male adults interviewed at betting shops in the university community revealed how they have become involved in sports betting activities for additional financial rewards. Results show that peer pressure is a strong persuader drawing new student teachers to sports betting activities, which makes it difficult for them to effectively focus on their studies. This has resulted in certain of the students getting poor grades, loss of concentration in class, strained relationships, increased exclusion or rejection from study groups, as well as significant negative effects on academic work, health and well-being, family, and society at large. This study recommends that stakeholders in education address this increasing social issue among young male adults through effective preventive strategy and educational promotion as an intervention to avoid thwarting the progress of the new educational reforms in Ghana.</p> Ernest Yeboah Acheampong, Emmanuel Osei Sarpong, Memunatu Mahamah Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 31 Jan 2022 00:00:00 -0800 Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Screen Time: Findings From a Cross-Sectional Observational Study Among College Students From India <p>In this study, we aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the amount and pattern of screen time among college students. The relationship between increased screen time and quality of life (QoL), COVID-related stress, and personality traits were also explored. A cross-sectional online survey-based study was conducted among Indian college students who were recruited by purposive sampling. Details regarding socio-demographics, amount and pattern of screen time usage, change in screen time patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic, and COVID-related stress were collected. In addition, personality traits and QoL were assessed with validated questionnaires. A total of 731 responses (51% female, mean age 20.7 years) were analysed. Of the participants, 93.2% self-reported an increase in daily screen time during COVID-19. The predominant reasons for the increased screen time were educational screen time (89.6%), streaming or watching videos for entertainment (82.8%), use of social media for non-communication purposes (78.1%), communication with friends and/or family members (76.2%), reading or watching news (65.9%), and interactive recreational screen time (44.7%). A small but significant negative correlation between increased screen time and QoL (<em>r<sub>s</sub> </em>= -0.154, <em>p </em>&lt; .001) was found. Increased screen time due to the use of social media for non-communication purposes was associated with poorer QoL (<em>U </em>= 32947.50; <em>p </em>= .02) and greater COVID stress (<em>U </em>= 32381.50; <em>p </em>= .01). Educational screen time was the most common cause for increased screen time among college students and was not associated with negative effects on QoL. The context and purpose of screen time appears to be important in ascertaining the impact of screen time on QoL.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Swarndeep Singh, Yatan Pal Singh Balhara, Dheeraj Kattula, Ragul Ganesh, Rachna Bhargava, Bandita Abhijita, Amulya Gupta, Abhinav Gupta Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 31 Jan 2022 00:00:00 -0800 L’impact des troubles de l’humeur sur le devenir à 12 mois de patients en demande de traitement pour un trouble lié au jeu d’argent / The effect of mood disorders on outcome at 12 months on patients seeking treatment for a gambling disorder <p>Les troubles addictifs et de l’humeur sont fréquemment cooccurrents. Le trouble lié au jeu d’argent est ainsi souvent accompagné de troubles de l’humeur, notamment d’épisode dépressif majeur, de trouble bipolaire ou de comportement suicidaire. De nombreuses études ont observé leur association, évalué leur prévalence et leur chronologie d’apparition, mais peu ont exploré l’impact d’un trouble de l’humeur, ou thymique, sur l’évolution du trouble lié au jeu d’argent. L’objectif de cette étude était d’évaluer le devenir à 1 an (rémission précoce) d’une cohorte de joueurs pathologiques traités, en fonction de la présence ou non d’antécédents de trouble de l’humeur à l’inclusion. Dans cette étude longitudinale monocentrique, le trouble lié au jeu d’argent et les troubles thymiques ont été évalués à l’inclusion et 12 mois après, au cours d’un entretien clinique standardisé. Près de 100 patients (<em>N&nbsp;=&nbsp;</em>94, 45 sans trouble de l’humeur et 49 avec trouble de l’humeur) se sont présentés aux 2 visites. À 1 an, une rémission précoce du trouble lié au jeu d’argent a été observée chez 42 patients, avec un taux de rémission de 39 % en cas de présence et de 51 % en cas d’absence d’antécédent de trouble de l’humeur. Nous n’avons pas démontré qu’un antécédent de trouble de l’humeur à l’inclusion était un facteur prédictif de la rémission précoce du trouble lié au jeu d’argent. Le potentiel manque de puissance de notre étude peut expliquer ce résultat. Cependant, les prédicteurs de rémission précoce identifiés dans cette étude étaient la vie en couple, l’absence de trouble anxieux et l’absence de trouble lié à la consommation d’alcool.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Mathilde Fron-Martineau, Joël Billieux, Juliette Leboucher, Yseulys Dubuy, Jean-Benoit Hardouin, Gaëlle Challet-Bouju, Marie Grall-Bronnec Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 31 Jan 2022 00:00:00 -0800 The Impact of Problem Gambling on Families and Relationship Partners: A Scoping Literature Review <p>It has been determined that family members and relationship partners of persons with gambling disorders face a variety of problems. Since their problems have not yet been summarized in the literature, we conducted a scoping review to address this issue, and focused on the studies of problems faced by family members and partners of those with gambling disorders and studies on the effects of gambling problems on family members and partners. We searched electronic databases (PsycINFO, PubMed, and MEDLINE) and the reference lists of included studies published up to February 15, 2021 and extracted 2,760 studies. These studies were examined for eligibility, and yielded 101 items that met our predefined criteria, all of which were reviewed. Overall, this review found that (1) the presence of gamblers in families was related to increased gambling or other addiction related behaviors among family members; (2) a variety of intra-family conflicts were likely to arise between gamblers and their families and partners; (3) the presence of gamblers in families increased the risk of violence and abuse for family members, partners, and gamblers themselves; and (4) gambling problems generated a variety of physical and mental health problems in gamblers’ families as well as among others in their proximity. In the future, it will be important to establish beneficial support and treatment methods by using the difficulties identified by this review as outcomes in the treatment of gamblers, along with their families and partners.</p> Tomonari Irie, Yokomitsu Kengo Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 31 Jan 2022 00:00:00 -0800