Journal of Gambling Issues <p>The Journal of Gambling Issues (<em>JGI</em>) is the world's first and longest-running online, academic journal dedicated to understanding problem gambling. Due to the increasing convergence of gambling and gaming, the <em>JGI</em> expanded its scope in 2020 to include problem video gaming and technology use. </p> <p><em>JGI</em> is an open-access, indexed journal with a double blind peer review process that provides a scientific forum for developments in gambling-related research, policy issues, and treatments. <em>JGI</em> is now part of the <em>Web of Science: Emerging Sources Citation Index.</em> We are also indexed in<em> Scopus, Crossref, Elselvier Series, Ebsco, Scimago and PsycInfo, </em>among others.<em> </em></p> <p><strong>Publishing Schedule and Fees:</strong> Issues are published triannually, although manuscripts are made publicly available as soon as they have been accepted/typeset on the <em>JGI Online First</em> platform. <em>JGI</em> does not charge any review or publication fees and is fully open access.</p> <p>The<em> JGI</em> is published by the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health and funded by Ontario’s Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. </p> <p><strong>French Language Announcement: </strong>As of June 1, 2021 the JGI will no longer be accepting French language submissions.</p> <p><strong>Journal ISSN (electronic): </strong>1910-7595</p> en-US <p><strong>Journal Contributors Agreement</strong></p><p> This work is licensed under a <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License</a>.</p><p>The parties intending to be legally bound (the principal author [Author] and the Journal of Gambling Issues [Publisher]), agree as follows:</p><p>1. The Author grants exclusively to the Publisher all world-wide rights in this Contribution; including the full copyright therein, the right to publish it as part of the JGI in all forms, languages and media now or hereafter known or developed and including, but not limited to, the right to license subsidiary rights such as granting rights to reprint in anthologies issued by other publishers or to photocopy for classroom use.</p><p>2. The Author guarantees that he or she is the sole owner of the Contribution and has full authority to make this agreement; and that the Contribution does not contain any copyright; does not violate any other property rights; does not contain any scandalous, libelous or unlawful matter; does not make any improper invasion of the privacy of another person; and has not been published before, and is not now being considered for publication elsewhere.</p><p>If the Contribution has been published previously, the Author guarantees that permission has been obtained, and any fee required has been paid, for publication in the JGI and shall submit proof of such permission and any required credit line to the Publisher with the signed agreement. The Author agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Publisher against any claim or proceeding undertaken on any of the aforementioned grounds.</p><p>3. The Author shall allow the Editor of the JGI and the Publisher to make the Contribution conform to the style of presentation, spelling, capitalization, punctuation and usage followed by the JGI. The Author agrees to review and correct the copyedited manuscript and proofs and to return them to the editor by the date set by the Editor. If the Editor has not received them by that time, the Author agrees that production of the JGI in which the Contribution is to be included may proceed without waiting for the Author's approval of the manuscript or the proofs.</p><p>4. If the Author wishes to publish this Contribution elsewhere, the Publisher shall grant to the Author, for no fee, a nonexclusive License to republish the Contribution in the same form in any language in a book or other media written or edited by the Author after the issue of the JGI containing the Contribution has been published, subject only to the conditions that a credit line, to be supplied by the Publisher, will be printed in the Author's book: to indicate the first publication of the Contribution in the JGI. The Author shall inform the Publisher 30 days before the Contribution is released in any other form.</p><p>5. This agreement shall be construed and interpreted through the laws of the province of Ontario, Canada. This agreement shall be binding upon and operate to the benefit of the parties thereto, their heirs, successors, assigns, and personal representatives. Where the Contribution is the product of more than one person, all of the obligations of the Author hereby created shall be deemed to be the joint and several obligations of all such persons as testified by their signatures.</p><p>6. The Author shall receive no payment from the Publisher for use of the Contribution.</p><p>7. The Author agrees to reference this article using its full and accurate name: Journal of Gambling Issues.</p><p> </p> (Vivien Rekkas, Ph.D.) (Vivien Rekkas) Thu, 23 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0700 OJS 60 Elevated Prevalence of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Severe Gambling Disorder: A Pilot Study in U.S. Veterans <p>Gambling disorder (GD) is associated with a higher prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Whether this applies to groups such as U.S. veterans, who already have elevated ACEs, is not known. In this pilot study, we extracted ACEs from the charts of a random sample (<em>n</em> = 19) male veterans in residential GD treatment and compared them to those from a general veteran sample (<em>n</em> =154, 30 females, 124 males). The GD group had an elevated prevalence (79% vs. 37%) of three or more ACEs and a lower prevalence (5% vs. 49%) of one or fewer ACEs. Within groups with elevated ACEs, higher ACE load may still confer a higher risk of adult GD.</p> Toby Chen, Heather Chapman, P Eric Konicki, Peijun Chen, George E Jaskiw Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 23 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0700 Gambling behaviours and treatment uptake among vulnerable populations during COVID-19 crisis <p>This study aimed to explore changes in gambling behaviours and gambling disorder (GD) treatment uptake during the COVID-19 pandemic among those with a heightened vulnerability to gambling-related harm. This was a single-center, cross-sectional, retrospective case series study assessing gambling behaviours and GD counselling participation among a vulnerable population sector following the COVID-19 shutdown. The clinical records of clients at a community substance use disorder (SUD) treatment center were explored (<em>N </em>= 67). Eight clients (<em>n </em>= 8) had satisfied the objective criteria, and were qualified for data exploration and analysis of gambling activities and GD treatment participation following the COVID-19 shutdown. All clients in the study belonged to subgroups at an elevated risk for gambling-related harm, with a mean duration of gambling problems of 9.5 years. Following the COVID-19 shutdown, an increase in gambling activities was noted in five cases. Migration to online gambling was noted in three cases. In two cases, no change in gambling activities was noted, and a reduction of gambling activities was noted in one case. In seven cases, no screening for gambling problems prior to current SUD program was noted. None had a history of, nor were currently engaged in counselling for gambling problems. The COVID-19 crisis and associated increase in gambling participation, coupled with a diminutive gambling counselling uptake during the pandemic, present an opportunity to rethink current behavioural addictions service delivery model for those with an increased vulnerability to gambling-related harm. Further investigation of the changes in gambling participation, and a closer look at optimizing GD service delivery among vulnerable population sectors during the COVID-19 crisis is warranted.</p> Robert J Miela, Wiesław J Cubała, Katarzyna Jakuszkowiak-Wojten, Dariusz W Mazurkiewicz Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 23 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0700 Alcohol Misuse in a Treatment-Seeking Sample of Pathological Gamblers <p>We aimed to estimate the prevalence of alcohol misuse and examine its relationship with gambling severity and psychological distress in a UK treatment-seeking sample of pathological gamblers. Approximately one in four patients (27.1%) scored X 8 on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) screening tool indicating alcohol misuse, and one in four (28.1%) reported abstinence. There was no evidence of an association between alcohol misuse and gambling severity or psychological distress level. Compared to the UK general population a significantly higher proportion demonstrated probable alcohol dependence (1.2% vs. 6.3%, <em>p</em> &lt; 0.001).</p> Emmert Roberts, Venetia Leonidaki, Zoe Delaney, Henrietta Bowden- Jones Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 23 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0700 Temporal Measurement Invariance of the Financially Focused Self-Concept Construct <p>Persons maintaining a financially focused self-concept view financial success as a core aspect of their respective self-concepts. We examined whether measurement properties of the financially focused self-concept scale (FFS) are invariant over time. A sample of predominantly older community members who gamble (N = 147) completed the 4-item FFS and Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) twice, approximately four weeks apart. FFS had strong temporal measurement invariance and moderate-to-high temporal stability. FFS and PGSI were also positively associated within and across waves. These findings indicate that people who score higher in financial focus report more gambling problems concurrently and over time.</p> Nassim Tabri, Kahlil S Philander, Richard T Wood, Michael J A Wohl Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 23 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0700 The Ordering of Gambling Severity and Harm Scales: A Cautionary Tale <p>Question-order effects are known to occur in surveys, particularly those that measure subjective experiences. The presence of context effects will impact the comparability of results if questions have not been presented in a consistent manner. In this study, we examined the influence of question order on how people responded to two gambling scales in the Australian Capital Territory Gambling Prevalence Survey: The Problem Gambling Severity Index and the Short Gambling Harm Screen. The application of these scales in gambling surveys is continuing to grow, the results being compared across time and between jurisdictions, countries, and populations. Here we outline a survey experiment that randomized the question ordering of these two scales. The results show that question-order effects are present for these scales, demonstrating that results from them may not be comparable across jurisdictions if the scales have not been presented consistently across surveys. These findings highlight the importance of testing for the presence of question-order effects, particularly for those scales that measure subjective experiences, and correcting for such effects where they exist by randomizing scale order.</p> Kate Sollis, Patrick Leslie, Nicholas Biddle, Marisa Paterson Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 23 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0700 An Exploratory Study in Gambling Recovery Communities: A Comparison Between ‘‘Pure’’ and Substance-Abusing Gamblers <p>Most of the available literature has shown that gambling disorder (GD) is often associated with several psychiatric conditions. Comorbidities with mood disorders, impulsiveness, personality traits, and impairments in cognitive function have also been frequently investigated. However, it is currently uncommon to study this disorder in individuals without comorbid substance abuse; therefore, the primary aim of our study was to compare the psychological profile of individuals with GD with and without substance use disorder. A total of 60 participants (100% male), including 20 individuals with GD, 20 substance-dependent gamblers (SDGs), and 20 healthy controls (HCs), were assessed with several clinical measures to investigate impulsivity, hostility, mood, and personality traits, as well as with cognitive tasks (i.e., decision-making tasks). Our results showed differences in both experimental groups compared with the HC group in mood disorders, impulsivity, and hostility traits. The ‘‘pure’’ GD group differed from the SDG group only in characteristics related to mood disorders (e.g., State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Y2, Beck Depression Inventory-II, and assault dimension), whereas greater impairment in decision making processes related to risky choices was shown in the SDG group. This study suggests the importance of studying pure GD to clarify the underlying mechanisms without the neurotoxic effects of the substances. This could provide an important contribution to the treatment and understanding of this complex disorder.</p> Alessandro Quaglieri, Emanuela Mari, Pierluigi Cordellieri, Elena Paoli, Francesca Dimarco, Mario Postiglione, Giampaolo Nicolasi, Tania Fontanella, Umberto Guidoni, Sandro Vedovi, Anna Maria Giannini Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 23 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0700 Drivers of Recreational Online Gambling Intentions: A UTAUT 2 Perspective, Enhancements, Results, and Implications <p>Recreational gambling has become an accepted pursuit, and the advent of the Internet has rendered online gambling ubiquitous. However, the resultant rapid growth in online recreational gambling is not matched by an understanding of the drivers of customers’ intentions to gamble online. While this is potentially a fascinating aspect of consumer behavior, marketing scholars have shied away from giving online gambling much attention. This research seeks a better understanding of the drivers of recreational online gambling intentions among customers by applying the latest version of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Technology—UTAUT 2, to customers in an online gambling context. It also proposes additional hypotheses that account for the role of anticipated enjoyment and perceived fairness. Data are collected from 593 casino customers of an online gambling firm and analyzed using PLS-SEM via Smart PLS. Results show that perceived fairness and anticipated enjoyment are significant drivers of online gambling intention, with perceived fairness being fully mediated by effort expectancy, anticipated enjoyment, and social influence. Shorn of drivers and moderators that are not significant, an online gambling intention model is proposed. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed, limitations are noted, and areas for further research are suggested.</p> Jirka Konietzny, Albert Caruana Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 23 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0700 Self-Management Strategies for Problem Gambling in the Context of Poverty and Homelessness <p>Problem gambling and gambling disorder are serious public health issues that disproportionately affect persons experiencing poverty, homelessness, and multimorbidity. Several barriers to service access contribute to low rates of formal treatment-seeking for problem gambling compared with treatments for other addictions. Given these challenges to treatment and care, self-management may be a viable alternative or complement to formal problem gambling interventions. In this study, we described problem gambling self management strategies among persons experiencing poverty and homelessness. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 19 adults experiencing problem gambling and poverty/homelessness, and employed qualitative content analysis to code and analyze the data thematically. We identified five types of self-management strategies: (1) seeking information on problem gambling, (2) talking about gambling problems, (3) limiting money spent on gambling, (4) avoiding gambling providers, and (5) engaging in alternative activities. Although these strategies are consistent with previous research, the social, financial,housing, and health challenges of persons experiencing poverty and homelessness shaped their self-management experiences and approaches in distinct ways. Approaches to problem gambling treatment should attend to the broader context in which persons experience and attempt to self-manage problem gambling.</p> Flora I Matheson, Sarah Hamilton-Wright, Arthur McLuhan, Jing Shi, Jessica L Wiese, David T Kryszajtys, Nigel E Turner, Sara Guilcher Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 23 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0700 Gambling Prevention Mobile Applications: Understanding the Inclusion and Use of Behaviour Change Techniques <p>Online gambling is emerging as a significant health behaviour of concern at a population level. Mobile applications (apps) are a popular tool to target change in health behaviour. Behaviour change techniques (BCTs) can be included within such apps to change relevant psychological mechanisms along established pathways, yet the content of apps targeting gambling problems specifically is not currently known. The purpose of the review was to identify the BCTs included in gambling prevention apps. Apps were downloaded from the Apple App Store and Google Play Store in October 2020. Apps were included if they related to gambling problems, were freely downloadable, and available in English. Once downloaded, two researchers independently coded the apps in November 2020 using the behaviour change technique taxonomy version 1 (Michie et al., 2013). The screening led to forty apps meeting the inclusion criteria (12 Apple App Store, 28 Google Play). The analyses identified 32 BCTs (20 Apple apps, 28 Google Play apps), with apps including between 0 and 9 BCTs (mean = 2.82, median = 2). The BCTs included most frequently were “3.1. Social support (unspecified),” “2.3. Self-monitoring of behaviour,” and “7.4. Remove access to the reward.” The review provides important information on the BCTs used in apps developed to reduce gambling-related problems. A limited number of BCTs were adopted within apps. Developers of apps seeking to develop effective gambling reduction products should draw upon a greater variety of BCTs.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Tom St Quinton, Ben Morris Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 23 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0700 Revenue Associated With Gambling-Related Harm as a Putative Indicator for Social Responsibility: Results From the Swiss Health Survey <p>Gambling behaviours represent a significant social and economic cost and an important public health problem. A putative index for monitoring gambling-related harm is a &nbsp;concentration of spending indicator that reports the proportion of gambling revenue derived from problem gambling. Using this indicator, we aimed to provide a first estimate of the proportion of gambling revenue associated with gambling-related harm in Switzerland according to the Swiss Health Survey. Data were obtained from the Swiss Health Survey 2017. The National Opinion Research Centre Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Loss of Control, Lying and Preoccupation (NODS-CLiP) screening tool was used as part of the questionnaire, and the study findings were evaluated to determine the prevalence of gambling-related harm. Self-reported spending on terrestrial and online gambling (including gaming tables, electronic gaming machines, lotteries, sports betting) during the past 12 months was then used to calculate the portion of gambling revenue derived from players experiencing harm. A total of 12,191 respondents were included. Gambling-related harm was reported by 3.10% of our sample, according to NODS-CLiP criteria. The findings showed that although 52% of people experiencing harm spend less than 100 francs per month on gambling, 31.3% of total spending is attributable to gambling-related harm. In addition to pre-existing national prevalence studies, data on spending should be made readily available by gambling operators and regulators, in keeping with their regulatory obligations. The revenue structure, according to gambling type, should also be provided, including data from third-party gambling operators. In an interdisciplinary effort to improve public health and consumer protection, organized national structural prevention measures should be developed and evaluated.</p> Emilien Jeannot, Jean Michel Costes, Cheryl Dickson, Olivier Simon Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 23 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0700 An Exploratory Study of the Relationship Between Financial Well-Being and Changes in Reported Gambling Behaviour During the COVID-19 Shutdown in Australia <p>A change in someone’s financial situation, such as a windfall gain or increased financial stress, can affect the way that they gamble. The aim of this paper was to explore the relationship between financial well-being and changes in gambling behaviour during the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) shutdown. Australian past-year gamblers (<em>N</em> = 764; 85% male) completed an online cross-sectional survey in May 2020. Participants retrospectively reported monthly gambling participation before and after the COVID-19 shutdown, as well as their financial well-being, experience of COVID-related financial hardship, problem gambling severity, and psychological distress. Financial well-being showed strong negative associations with problem gambling and psychological distress. Neither financial well-being nor the interaction between financial well-being and problem gambling severity showed consistent evidence for predicting changes in gambling participation during the shutdown in this sample. This study provides preliminary evidence that self-reported financial well-being has a strong negative association with gambling problems but is not related to gambling participation. Future studies should link objective measures of financial well-being from bank transaction data with survey measures of problem gambling severity and experience of gambling-related harm.</p> Thomas B Swanton, Martin T Burgess, Alex Blaszczynski, Sally M Gainsbury Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 23 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0700 Safer by design: Building a collaborative, integrated and evidence-based framework to inform the regulation and mitigation of gambling product risk <p>Evidence suggests that harms may result from gambling participation as a result of a complex interaction between individual differences among consumers, environmental factors, and the characteristics of the gambling product. The latter of these factors, broadly referred to in this paper as <em>product risk,</em> has received increased policy attention in recent years. Product-focussed approaches to harm reduction, however, are under-developed relative to other forms of player protection and likely reflects the limitations of existing evidence and relative complexity of the topic. In this position paper, we define and explain the concept of product risk and consider what is currently known regarding the link between gambling products and harm. The paper describes the present barriers to develop effective product risk regulation and harm mitigation strategies. These include the competing interests of stakeholders, limited collaboration and information sharing, clear roles, responsibilities and leadership and a lack of integrated evidence-informed approaches. In response to these challenges, we propose adopting a framework comprised of a series of principles to progress this contested area of policy. The framework encourages better collaboration and communication between stakeholders; the accelerated production of valid and reliable evidence; a strategic alignment of stakeholder activity; and, more effective and efficient approaches to assessing and mitigating product risk.</p> Paul Delfabbro, Jonathan Parke, Simo Dragecvic, Chris Percy, Richard Bayliss Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 23 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0700 Corporate Digital Responsibility Challenges for Sports Betting Companies <p>The emergence and continuing development of digital technologies is disrupting and reshaping traditional business practices throughout the service industries, and the gambling industry is no exception. On the one hand, digital technologies have opened the door to a landscape of new sports betting opportunities. On the other, the introduction of digital technologies brings responsibility challenges for sports betting companies. This policy paper outlines the features of corporate digital responsibility, provides some simple illustrations of digital responsibility issues in sports betting, and offers reflections on how these responsibilities are being discharged.</p> Peter Jones, Daphne Comfort Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 23 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0700